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Hard Evidence: who carries out the most caesarean sections?

Collaborators from 29 European countries, 26 in the EU plus Iceland, Switzerland and Norway, contributed official aggregated national data for the year 2010. The data was comparable because it used predefined indicators to compare births and maternity care in these countries. The report showed wide differences between caesarean section rates, ranging from 14.8% in Iceland to 52.2% in Cyprus.

On the dangers of using data for understanding crime

There is no consistency in what data different charitable and government funders working in the criminal justice field ask for. This wastes the time and precious resources of small independent organisations according to Mat Ilic, a leader in criminal justice evidence who works at the crime prevention charity Only Connect, and in the past on Project Oracle.

Hard Evidence: is open access working?

Open access delivered by journals is called “gold” open access and open access delivered by repositories is called “green” open access. Most academic literature is not open access. And in recent years there has been a growing open access movement to remove paywalls, which are put up by journal publishers.

The professions and evidence

Creating a common set of standards for all evidence may be impossible but according to Sir Iain Chalmers, one of the founders of the Cochrane Collaboration, there are some basic principles of good evidence that apply in all professions.

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